Methodological manuals

Re-evaluate the generation knowledge and productivity of scientific activity is an arduous task, since it poses the challenge of working with intangible and difficult to quantify in economic terms, cumulative concepts. In order to solve this problem, there are international organisations dedicated to developing methodological manuals. They are guidelines that allow harmonizing concepts and standardize methodologies to ensure the validity of the collection of statistical information and the production of validated and comparable indicators internationally.

Methodological manuals serve other institutions and companies such as guidelines for the preparation of publications and own reports on Science, technology and innovation indicators in its territory. The most prominent organizations son:

ricyt eurostat ocde

The methodological manuals most relevant are:
Frascati manual. OECD, 1963:

Is the "proposal of standard practice for surveys of research and Experimental Development" and was developed by a group of experts in statistics for innovation and development (NESTI) of the Member countries of the OECD. The content provides the basic definitions of the concepts used in research and development (r & d) activities and their categories. He has now posted its sixth edition in 2002 and is a reference, being considered as "the international guide that exists on Standardization of data statistics for the measurement of investment in r & d" ( Sancho, 2001 ). From this manual, OECD has edited other known as the Frascati family, which are periodically reviewed.

Recommendation concerning the international standardization of statistics on Science and technology. UNESCO, 1978:

Recommendation prepared by the UNESCO which provides a broad view of the statistics of science and technology, looking at the scientific and technological, cultural and educational dimensions. This guide proposes a statistical model which aims to provide, for each Member State, data normalized on a number of scientific and technological, including: activities of scientific research and Experimental Development, education and scientific and technical training and scientific and technical services.

Oslo manual. OECD, 1995

Is the "Guide for the collection and interpretation of data on innovation" and is edited jointly by EUROSTAT and the OECD, within the so-called "Frascati family". Represents the main source of international guidelines for the analysis and compilation of statistics in the field of technological innovation, and also a basic source for studies related to the set of activities that promote technological innovation, such as technology transfer or the role played by universities in the innovation system, its scope, the types of innovation , etc. The latest edition is 2005.

Manual of Bogotá. RICYT

Is the reference manual prepared by RICYT and OAS for the Standardization of indicators of technological innovation in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is inspired by the Oslo Manual and proposes guidelines for the standardization and construction of technological innovation in the region indicators which guarantee regional and international comparability. Has served, in addition, guide to the annex to countries in development from the Manual of Oslo from the OECD.

Manual of Santiago. RICYT, 2007

Methodological proposal drawn up by RICYT for the measurement of the intensity and the description of the characteristics of the internationalization of science and technology of the Latin American countries, both at the national level institutions and bodies that perform tasks for research and technological development (r & d).

Manual of Lisbon. RICYT, 2009

Document prepared by RICYT within the framework of the subnet on Indicators of the information society. It is a methodological proposal called "Handbook of Lisbon. Guidelines for the interpretation of the available statistical data and the construction of indicators relating to the transition of Latin America towards the information society", and pretends to homogenize criteria and methods used in the region for the measurement of the development of the information society and knowledge in Latin America from a holistic view.