Nowadays, technology has become a strategic element in every organization since its management is the key to creating and consolidating competitive advantages in a market or a sector. Technology acquisition processes are an essential source of ideas for creativity and the gradual incorporation of technological innovation opportunities in an organization.
There are different models of technological management and innovation, which can be classified according to the original source of innovation, the source of technological need, etc. These may include:
- Closed innovation: Emerging technology is fully developed by the organization, without interference from any other external agents.
- Open innovation: Technology is developed in collaboration with external agents, opening processes and distributing networking benefits among all the parties involved.
- Technology-push, The organization needs to market its innovations resulting from its technological research activity and development.
- Market-pull, The market demands technological innovations and the organization works to satisfy this need with innovative solutions.
In turn, the technology acquisition process can be generated from two aspects. On the one hand, there is the research of technological demands through which an organization identifies a technological need that could solve a technological problem. On the other hand, there is the technological supply through which researchers and knowledge producers offer their research capabilities and results to find organizations which implement them. There are many tools for technology identification and detection, in order to search, prioritize, plan, evaluate and make decisions to implement the technological supply and demand.
Innovative project management is a fundamental step in the innovation management of the organization. The main objective is to ensure that the project is delivered in accordance with the defined parameters: scope, time and cost. These tensile properties to any project, regardless of its nature, in the case of technological projects and innovation are given a number of specific characteristics that make them unique and that must be taken into account in its management.
- Develop systematic planning and monitoring of the implementation of innovation projects.
- Acquire a global vision of a project for innovation and their differences and affinities with other projects.
- Information about the tools available for planning and control of projects of innovation.
- Coordinate the innovation projects in parallel to other projects of the company.
- Have "good practices" applicable to the management of the innovation in your company.
From a general perspective, an r & d project phases include:
- Identification and analysis of problems and opportunities.
- Analysis and selection of r & d ideas.
- Planning, monitoring and control of projects.
- Technology transfer.
- Protection of priority.
Are numerous tools and resources management of r & d projects that you'll find on the net.
Certification of activities of research, technological development and innovation is an instrument of quality management that allows an organization to continuously identify opportunities for improvement for innovation continues. In practice, a system of quality management is defined as "an operational structure of work, well documented and integrated technical and managerial, procedures to guide the actions of the labour force, machinery, or equipment, and the Organization of practical and coordinated information and to ensure the satisfaction of the customer and low costs for quality" ( source)
there are different agencies and institutions responsible for designing systems of accreditation certification and standardization of r & d processes according to country and sector of activity. In Spain, for example, the Spanish Association for standardisation and certification, AENOR, is the body responsible for this work. Your c atalogo of certification of r & d projects allow systematize the activities of research, development and innovation and take advantage of important tax benefits, reduce the uncertainty and risks and increase efficiency in management for a company or organization. Is made up of:
- systems gestion:
- r & d projects:
- Research staff:
- Technology transfer:
The audit technology is a useful tool for analyzing the technological heritage of an organization. Is to analyze the technology an organization is using a specific activity and the comparison with the State of the art at the geographical level that you define (regional, national or international).
In their process of development, the audit technology debe:
- Identify the technological potential of the organization.
- Prioritize needs and guide investment.
- Take advantage of the identified strengths and correct weaknesses.
- Define what conditions must be met and which technology is needed to be competitive.
- Identify when you should buy technology.
- Provide information on protection of industrial property.
More information: EENBASQUE
Technology portfolio analysis is a strategic tool that helps select and prioritize technological innovations and/or projects of interest to the organization. This must begin by identifying products or technological systems Basic, Central and derived from the Organization, with special emphasis on elements such as: risk, investment, the capabilities, benefits.
Technology portfolio analyses have two key dimensions: the position of the Organization and the relevance of technology.
Technological organization position depends on structural factors, such as son:
- Development time.
- Personal development.
- Budget for I + D.
The relevance of technology is determined by factors such as:
- Extent of application.
- Speed deaceptacion.
- Development potential.
- Application in otrosmercados, industries.
- Social acceptability yambiental.
More information: "Organizational performance". Mariano Bernárdez (p. 131-132)
In strategic planning process will evaluate different alternatives of action to select the most relevant criterion. The decision matrix is a strategic tool for this purpose, allowing us to select the alternative that gets a higher value compared options weighted. Usually, your result is displayed through charts and tables.
More information: Advances UCA
A technological roadmaps is a tool that allows you to analyze the changes and developments of new technologies and the demands of future markets in order to establish the most appropriate strategies to achieve a previously defined technological objective. As a result of the process, through graphic displays the different dimensions of a strategy, helping us analyze: where you are to where you want to go, the challenges and barriers that exist to get there and solutions to be taken to get.
More information: EENBASQUE
The roadmapping, also called the road map, is a very useful tool to define the innovation strategy in an organization. The result helps to represent in short and long-term, the evolution of relevant parameters in designing processes of strategic planning, such as: market, business model, products, services, technology and the available resources.
The Roadmapping techniques help to build a common strategy vision of innovation shared by different people who, from different perspectives, share a specific interest and actively participate in the process of reflection.
Strategic science and technology information management is increasingly important to innovate and survive in a complex and changing environment like the present. Thus, the technological surveillance is an essential tool to detect opportunities for technological innovation and new ideas that would facilitate an improvement of processes, products and services in the organization.
In 2006 is published the standard 1666006:2006 EX, which defines the process of technology watch as a way to "organized, selective and permanent capture information from abroad about technology, analyze and turn it into knowledge for decision-making with less risk, and to anticipate the changes". A milestone that makes this a guide to systematize practices, creating technological surveillance units in organizations and allow their certification.
The patents are one of the main sources of information on the practice of Surveillance technology. 70% of the literature on technology is done only through patents. They provide to the Organization relevant, detailed information and anticipatory on the emergence of new products or technologies on the market. In addition, are documents standardized internationally.
More information: Technology watch
Market analysis, also known as market research or market research, are a strategic tool to get relevant information that will help to estimate the potential development of a technology in its market. Thus, have to provide up-to-date and comparative information on aspects such as: detailed description of the product and its features, research environment and market potential, current legislation, competition and substitutes, consumer needs and analysis of the demand and the offer, estimation of price or value on the market, trade margin, possible channels of marketing and distribution as well as identification of potential partners and alliances strategic of interest.
There are multiple methodologies to prepare a market analysis, all share a number of basic steps as son:
- Problem identification.
- Establish objectives.
- Look for sources of information.
- Designing the shape of the data collection.
- Determine what the group who are interested in studying.
- Selection and preparation of instruments.
- Data analysis.
- Presentation of results and conclusions.